Understanding enforced return; a Netherlands/Norway comparison

Projectnummer 3195c
Type WODC-intern onderzoek


This research is a multimethod study that consists of a quantitative sub-study (to be done by the WODC), followed by a qualitative sub-study in the form of a comparative case study (in collaboration with one or more external parties). Both a quantitative and qualitative sub-study are necessary to answer the main research question of this study: to what extent, and how, do bilateral return arrangements and other characteristics of the international relations between EU+ countries and non-EU countries explain cross-national and temporal variation in rates of enforced return from the EU+ countries in the 2007-2019 period, and do these relations explain why some EU+ States have higher rates of enforced return to selected third countries than the Netherlands?
The research consists of:

  1. A quantitative macro-level analysis on the influence of return arrangements and other aspects of international relations on patterns of enforced return in the EU+ area in the 2007-2019 period (the period with observations), using data from Eurostat and other published sources, and data from an European Migration Network (EMN) ad hoc query. Because there is limited scientific information about the validity and comparability of the Eurostat data on enforced return, the ad hoc query will also include questions about how different EU+ countries compile the Eurostat data.
  2. A comparative case study on the Netherlands and two or three other EU+ countries on their bilateral return arrangements with one or a few selected third countries.

This part of the research concerns Understanding enforced return; a Netherlands/Norway comparison. The other parts of the research are: measuring enforced return (3195A) and the role of readmission agreements (3195B).